1. 看着课文听CD TRACK 01（或14）.多次反复听，直到耳朵习惯为止。
Japan and Japanese
Japan , or Nippon, is made up of 6,800 islands including Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku ,and Kyushu. Mountains cover 67 percent of the land, while only 13 percent is flat. The entire landmass of the country is 378,000 sq. kilometers, an area smaller than that of California. As for population density, in Japan there are 324 people for every sq. kilometer, compared to 25 people per sq. kilometer in the United States.
According to Japanese myths, Emperor Jimmu was enthroned in 660 B.C., and from him, the current Emperor descended, becoming the 125th ruler of Japan.
Under the ancient Constitution of Japan, the Emperor had authority, but the current Constitution, which took effect in 1947, gave authority to the people, and the Emperor became a figurehead.
How can the Japanese people best be described in simple terms?
From ancient times, the Japanese have worshiped the Sun, appreciated its blessings, and strived to live round and bright lives. Even today, as in ancient times, people will travel to places where they can worship the first Sunrise of the year. In the past, it was even customary to worship the Sunrise each day.
The word Nippon refers to “Sun” and “source.” A father is sometimes called totosama, which refers to a man who is respected like the sun. And a mother is sometimes called, kakasama, referring to someone who shines brightly like the Sun.
The meaning of Konichiwa
Japanese greet each other with the word “Konichiwa”. This word is also related to the Sun. Japanese sometimes refer to the Sun as Konichi-sama. So saying “Konichiwa”to someone is like saying, “Hi Sun.” This comes from the traditional concept of Japanese being descendents of the Sun.
The Meaning of “sayonara”
So what about the word, “sayonara”? While “Konichiwa”is used to greet someone, “sayonara” is used when parting.
In other words, a conversation between Japanese might go as follows:
“How are you today? Are you still bright and healthy as is the Sun?”
“Yes ,I am”
And then they’ll say “sayonara”,which has the hidden meaning of ,“If you are living with the Sun, then you must be feeling fine.”So the words “Konichiwa”and “sayonara” are linked together in meaning.
In Japan, there are various religions including Shintoism, Buddhism, and Christianity. The breakdown is as follows:
Other religions 11,210,000
Statistically speaking, the number of believers if twice as large as Japan’s total population, but this is because many households worship both Shintoist and Buddhist gods.
You may find it strange to learn that when you ask Japanese what religion they belong to , the most common answer will be, “I don’t have a religion.”However, if you ask them what sect they belong to, they will give you a specific answer such as jodoshusect or Sodoshu-sect.
Unlike Christians, Shintoists and Buddhists do not have the custom of going to worship services on a weekly basis, and so they are considered non-religions. However, a large portion lf the population does visit shrines and temples during New Years. Japanese traditionally pay respect to their ancestors, and in the past it was common for every home to have both a small family shrines for worshiping the gods of Buddhism and Shintoism. The falling apart of the nuiclear family in modern times has spelled the end to this custom..
In the past, most Japanese participated in various Shintoist or Buddhist ceremonies, weddings funerals Buddhist. In recent times, the trend has been towards Christian and non-denominational weddings, and weddings are generally becoming more simple events.
The average age for a Japanese male to marry is 28or 29, and 26or 27for females. Up until 1970, the average age for marriage was below 25, and so now Japanese are waiting longer until they get married.
Incidentally, one in 3.5 marriages ends in divorce, indicating a rise in the number of divorces.
In the past Japanese fathers were generally strict with their children, and they were not expected to help their wives with the housework. They left the child rearing to the mothers. Even mow, many Japanese fathers still think this way. On the other hand, a lot of men have started to participate in child rearing and domestic chores. Fathers are now more involved in the teaching of their children.
But many fathers work so hard that they don’t have much time to interact with their children. Japanese fathers spend a lot of time at work, and therefore they often see their only enjoyment as drinking with their coworkers after work. On their days off, the stereotypical Japanese father goes golfing or loafs around the house.
An increasing number of Japanese women today work even after getting married. And even after having b baby, it’s likely that the mother will leave the baby at a childcare center in order to keep on working. It’s also becoming more common for mothers to go back to work when their children get older. But others still stay at home to take care of their children. In Japan, mothers are expected to raise their children by themselves: it is not common to hire house workers and babysitters.
In some cases, mothers leave their children to their own mothers and go to work. Other mothers are so busy and can’t ask a grandmother for help that they become exhausted. Mothers learn how to raise their children by reading books after getting married, but more than a few become distressed when things don’t go well.
Child abuse has been increasing in recent years. That’s because, as ties are weakened in the extended families, those who didn’t learn how to raise children from their own parents don’t know how to interact gently with their children. Unable to control themselves, they lash out at their children, and sometimes the abuse results in death.
Many people who abuse their children were abused in the same way by their parents. In many cases, these parents don’t have any friends or relatives to go to for help and advice.
There have been many cases where children have died when their parents left them in locked cars on b hot summer day. Some parents leave their children in the car while shopping or playing arcade games. They need to learn that this can be very dangerous.
The major spectator sports in Japan that draw large crowds are professional baseball and soccer. Rugby and volleyball are also popular sports.
The national sport of Japan is sumo, mainly a spectator sport watched on television. In the spring and summer, the widely popular national high school baseball tournament takes place at the Koshien stadium. Japan is perhaps the only country where high school baseball creates so much attention. Players that do well at the Koshien are often scouted out for professional and non-professional baseball teams to become future stars lf the sport.
Kabuki, a representative Japanese drama form, had its start in the Edo period （1603 to 1867）. It originated with a woman named Okuni or Izumo in the 17th century. At that time, women were prohibited from performing in dramas in public, and so all the roles were played by men.
The kabuki actors wear traditional costumes, and sing in addition to acting. Dramas are based on events that took place before the middle ages, everyday life in the Edo era, and events involving the feudal lords of the Edo period.
It was originally entertainment for the masses. Today, kabuki performances are held at specialized theaters called Kabuki-za, mainly for the more cultured of society. For this reason, most of Japan’s younger generations do not know much about kabuki.
The language of kabuki is difficult to understand, but earphones are provided to explain the story, and there are also earphone services available in English.
Male actors that play the role of females are referred to as oyama. In one performance, usually lasting four or five hours, three or four stories are performed. Kabuki is popular with foreigners as well as Japanese..
歌舞伎是日本的代表戏剧。始于江沪时代 （1603 ～ 1867）。它的鼻祖是17世纪一位叫出去阿国的女性。那时禁止女性在公众面前表演戏剧，所以所有的角色都由男性扮演。
The staple of the Japanese diet is rice, rice and soybean curd soup being common breakfast foods. There are also many people who eat bread for breakfast.
Many Americans now enjoy rice, soybean curd, sashimi, and other Japanese dishes, and the large number of Japanese grocery stores in America indicates the popularity of Japanese food. The reason is that Japanese food mostly consists of fish instead of meat, and also soybeans, and so it is considered good for the health. Foods that are most well received by foreigners are tempura, sukiyaki, sushi, sashimi, buckwheat noodles, and soybean curd.
This dish mostly consists of deep-fried eggplant, squash, sweet potato, and other vegetables, along with shrimp and Fish. One theory is that the word tempura came from the Spanish tempera, meaning temperature. Tempura is eaten with a special soy sauce-based dip.
Sukiyaki is one of the representative foods of Japan. The naming comes from the farmer’w spade sometimes used to cook on. Sukiyaki refers directly to broiling beef on the spade, along with soybean curd, leeks, and vegetables. The seasoning includes soy sauce, sweet sake, and sugar.
Sushi is another food that represents Japanese cuisine, piping hot rice is mixed with vinegar, sugar, and salt. Two major types of sushi are nigiri-zushi originated in the ancient days of Tokyo when it was still called Edo. A rectangle cake of rice is formed, and then a slice of raw fish or other topping is placed on top.
It is said that sushi got its start as a snack eaten at intermissions of kabuki performances. As a result, such rice balls are called maku-no-uchi, a term which directly refers to the intermissions. A common lunch box is also referred to as maku-no-uchi.
Sashimi is the sliced strips of fresh fish, making Japanese one of the few peoples in the world to eat raw fish. The most common types of fish used are sea beam, tuna, and bonito. The fish used in sashimi does not have the smell usually associated with fish because it is always fresh. Sashimi is eaten with soy sauce, enhanced by grated radish, ginger or green Japanese horseradish.
Buckwheat noodles or soba is also a typical Japanese dish. There are some people that eat soba at least once a day. Many office workers make it a habit to have soba for lunch. Soba noodles are a mixture of buckwheat, flour and eggs. It looks similar to spaghetti in shape. It is first boiled, and then dipped in a soup made of soy sauce, salt, sweet sake, and bonito shavings as it is being eaten. Because soba is long, it is considered a symbol of long life.
Soybean curd, called tofu is an ingredient originating in china that is made from the soybean. To make tofu, first soak beans in water for about 10 to24 hours. The softened beans are boiled, and then formed into blocks 10cm by 6cm by 4cm.
Soybeans, white and gelatinous, are a rich source of protein. A dish called hiyayako is eaten without cooking it, along with soy sauce, leeks, ginger, and so forth. Tofu is cut into small cubes and eaten in bean paste soup. It’s also used as an ingredient in sukiyaki. Tofu is becoming popular in the United States and Europe as a health food.
Flower arranging and tea ceremony
Flower arranging, or ikebana, is well known as a part of Japanese culture. This Japanese form of flower arranging evolved during the Heian period （794 to 1192）as an art form. Ikebana and tea ceremony were considered two essential skills that every woman needed to study before getting married. Now ,they are only for those who happen to be interested.
There are various schools of the ikebana art, including Ikenobo, Ohara, and Sogetsu-ryu. Inside a vase, a spiked frog is placed to keep the flowers stems standing. Ikebana has now spread to other parts of the world.
The tea ceremony is a complicated form of etiquette and hospitality, formed into an art in the 16th century by a man named Rikyu. The tea ceremony is a form of aesthetic enjoyment, especially popular with women. Some junior high and high school students also join tea ceremony clubs, considered a good way to learn etiquette and manners.
When the tea is served, there are strict procedures established for drinking is. First, the teacup is picked up off the mat, and then it is turned clockwise two or three times. After a sip is taken, the cup is turned the other direction and put back down. While a light tea called sencha is the daily tea, a thicker tea called macha is used in the tea ceremony.
I have a dream
I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day the state of Alabama ,whose governor’s lips are presently dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and little white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
I have b dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.
This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the south. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
This will be the day when all of god’s children will be able to sing with a new meaning. “‘my country,’ tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring. ”
And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of new Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!
Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado!
Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.
But not only that.
Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.
Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.
Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi, from every mountainside,
let freedom ring! And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last, free at last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last."